Direkt zum Inhalt | Direkt zur Navigation

Benutzerspezifische Werkzeuge
Kontakt Spenden Abo Newsletter
Sie sind hier: Startseite Zeitschrift Ausgaben 363 | Gegen sexualisierte Gewalt Literaturliste zum ostafrikanischen Sklavenhandel

Literaturliste zum ostafrikanischen Sklavenhandel

von Oliver Schulten

Der ostafrikanische Sklavenhandel

Eine Literaturauswahl

Oliver Schulten; Wuppertal im Juli 2017

Kontakt: oliverschulten@web.de

Allgemeine Geschichte der Ostküste:

Ajayi, J.:
General History of Africa. Vol. VI: Africa in the Nineteenth Century until the 1880’s.

S.: 79-99: The East African Coast and Hinterland, 1800-1880. Paris / Oxford / Berkeley 1998.

Alimen, H.:
The Prehistory of Africa. S.: 194-225: East Africa. London 1957.

Allen, J.:
Swahili Origins. London 1993.

Allen, J.; Wilson, T.:
From Zinj to Zanzibar: Studies in History, Trade and Society on the Eastern Coast of Africa. Paideuma 28. Wiesbaden 1982.

Alpers, E.A.:
The Coast and the Development of the Caravan Trade. In: Kimambo, I.N.; Temu, A.J.: A History of Tanzania, 35-56. Nairobi 1969.

Gujarat and the Trade of East Africa, 1500-1800. In: International Journal of African Historical Studies 9, 22-44. 1976.

Moqdiso in the 19th Century. In: International Journal of African Historical Studies 24, 441-459. 1983.

East Africa and the Indian Ocean. Princeton 2009.

The Indian Ocean in World History. Oxford 2013.

Alpers, E.; Ehret, C.:
Eastern Africa. In: Cambridge History of Africa 4, 469-536. Cambridge 1975.

Anene, J.:
The Omani Empire and Its Impact on East African Societies. In: Anene, J.; Brown, G.: Africa in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, 440-457. Ibadan 1966.

Axelson, E.:
The Portuguese in South-East Africa 1600-1700. Johannesburg 1960.

The Portuguese in South-East Africa 1488-1600. Cape Town 1973.

Ayot, H.:
Topics in East African History, 1000-1976. Kampala 1976.

Aziz, E.:
Towards a History of Islam in East Africa. In: Kenya Historical Review 3, 147-158. Nairobi 1975.

Beachey, R.:
The East African Ivory Trade in the Nineteenth Century. In: Journal of African History 7/2. 1967.

A history of East Africa. 1592-1902. London / New York 1996.

Bennett, N.:
Studies in East African History. Boston 1963.

A History of the Arab State of Zanzibar. London 1978.

Arab versus European: Diplomacy and War in Nineteenth Century East Central Africa. New York 1986.

Berg, F.:
The Swahili Community of Mombasa, 1500-1900. In: Journal of African History 9/1, 35-56. 1968.

Birmingham, D.; Gray, R.:
Pre-Colonial African Trade. Essays on Trade in Central and Eastern Africa before 1900. London 1970.

Boahen, A.:
General History of Africa. Vol. VII: Africa under Colonial Domination 1880-1935. S.: 72-82: African Initiatives and Resistance in East Africa, 1880-1914. Paris / London 1990.

Boxer, C.:
Fort Jesus and the Portuguese in Mombasa. London 1960.

Bradley, J.:
History of the Seychelles Islands. Port Victoria 1940.

Brett, E.:
Colonialism and Underdevelopment in East Africa 1919-1939. London 1973.

Brode, H.:
British and German East Africa. London 1911.

Brown, B.; Brown, W.T.:
East African Trade Towns. In: Arens, W.: A Century of Change in Eastern Africa, 183-200. Chicago 1976.

Burgh-Edwardes, S.:
The History of Mauritius, 1507-1914. London 1921.

Burke, E.:
African and Seychellois Socio-Cultural Ties, Mid-18th Century to Present Day. In: Hadith 6, 86-110. 1976.

Burton, A.; Charton-Bigot, H.:
Generations Past: Youth in East African History. University of Ohio 2010.

Chami, F.:
The Tanzanian Coast in the First Millennium AD. Uppsala 1994.

The First Millennium AD on the East Coast: a new look at the cultural sequence and interactions. In: Azania 29/30, 232-237. 1995/1996.

Chami, F.; Msemwa, P.:
A new look at culture and trade on the Azanian Coast. In: Current Anthropology 38/4, 673-677. 1997.

Chaudhuri, K.:
The Trading World of Asia and the English East African Company, 1660-1760. Cambridge 1978.

Chittick, N.:
Kilwa and the Arab Settlement of the East African Coast. In: Journal of African History 4/2, 179-190. 1963.

The Shirazi Colonization of East Africa. In: Journal of African History 6/3, 263-273. 1965.

The Coast of East Africa. In: Shinnie, P.: The African Iron Age, 108-141. Oxford 1971.

Kilwa: An Islamic Trading City on the East African Coast. 2 Bde. Nairobi 1974.

The East Coast, Madagascar and the Indian Ocean. In: Oliver, R.: Cambridge History of Africa, Vol. 3, c. 1050-1600, S.: 183-231. Cambridge 1977.

Medieval Mogadishu. In: Paideuma 28, 45-62. 1982.

Chittick, N.; Rotberg, R.:
East Africa and the Orient. New York / London 1975.

Cole, S.:
The Prehistory of East Africa. London 1954.

Collins, R.; Burns, J.:
A History of Sub-Saharan Africa. S.: 96-113: East Africa and the Indian Ocean World. Cambridge 2007.

Connah, G.:
African Civilizations. An Archaeological Perspective. S.: 181-222: The Edge or the Center: Cities of the East African Coast and Islands. Cambridge 2001.

Unbekanntes Afrika. Archäologische Entdeckungen auf dem Schwarzen Kontinent. S.: 161-167: Angesichts zweier Welten – Handelsniederlassungen an der Ostafrikanischen Küste. Stuttgart 2006.

Coupland, R.:
East Africa and Its Invaders. Oxford 1938.

Datoo, B.:
Port Development in East Africa: Spatial Patterns from the Ninth to the Sixteenth Centuries. Nairobi 1975.

Davidson, B.:
Eastern African History. New York 1964.

Delf, G.:
Asians in East Africa. London 1963.

Deschamps, H.:
Histoire de Madagascar. Paris 1960.

Diagram Group:
History of East Africa. New York 2003.

Doresse, J.:
Histoire sommaire de la Corne Orientale de l’Afrique. Paris 1971.

Ehret, C.:
An African Classical Age. Eastern and Southern Africa in World History, 1000 BC to AD 400. Oxford 1998.

The Civilizations of Africa. A History to 1800. S.: 275-284: Eastern Africa, 300-1450. Charlottesville 2002.

Ehret, C.; Posnansky, M.:
Archaeological and Linguistic Reconstruction of East African History. Berkeley 1982.

El-Tahtany, H.:
Die Ausfuhrgüter der ostafrikanischen Küste im Mittelalter. Wien 1972.

Freeman-Grenville, G.:
Medieval History of the Coast of Tanganyika. Oxford 1962.

The East African Coast: Selected Documents from the First to the Earlier Nineteenth Century. Oxford 1975.

The Swahili Coast, 2nd to 19th Centuries. London 1988.

Gailey, H.:
History of Africa. Vol. I: From Earliest Times to 1800. S. 201-226: East Africa. New York 1981.

Garlake, P.:
The Early Islamic Architecture of the East African Coast. Nairobi 1966.

Glamann, K.:
The Dutch-Asiatic Trade 1620-1740. Kopenhagen 1958.

Goodrich, L.:
Negroes in China. In: Bulletin of the Catholic University of Peking 8. Peking 1931.

Gordon, C.:
The Horn of Africa. New York 1994.

Graham, G.:
Great Britain in the Indian Ocean 1810-1850. Oxford 1967.

Gray, J.:
History of Zanzibar. Oxford 1962.

Gregory, R.:
India and East Africa. Oxford 1971.

Guillain, M.:
Documents sur l’Histoire, la Géographie et le Commerce de l’Afrique Orientale. 3 Bde. Paris 1856.

Harlow, V.; Chilver, E.:
History of East Africa, Vol. II. Oxford 1965.

Harries, L.:
Islam in East Africa. London 1954.

Hawley, J.:
India in Africa, Africa in India. Bloomington 2008.

Herzog, J.:
Geschichte Tansanias. Berlin 1986.

Hollingsworth, L.:
A Short History of the East Coast of Africa. London 1929.

The Asians of East Africa. London 1960.

Hornsby, C.:
Kenya. A history since Independence. London 2012.

Horton, M.:
Shanga: The Archaeology of a Muslim Trading Community on the Coast of East Africa. London 1996.

Huggins, W.N.; Jackson, J.G.:
An Introduction to African Civilizations with Main Currents in Ethiopian History. S.: 162-167: Early Traces of the Blacks in the Ancient East. New York 1937.

Hughes, A.:
East Africa. Harmondsworth 1969.

Iliffe, J.:
A Modern History of Tanganyika. Cambridge 1979.

Geschichte Afrikas. S.: 142-148: Ostafrika. München 1997.

Ingrams, W.:
Zanzibar. It’s History and its People. London 1931.

Jackson, F.:
Early Days in East Africa. London 1930.

July, R.:
A History of the African People. S.: 70-91: The Cosmopolitan World of East Africa. Prospect Heights / Illinois 1992.

Kaur, S.:
History of East Africa. Oxford 2003.

Kent, R.:
Madagascar in History. Albany 1979.

Kenyatta, J.:
Facing Mount Kenya. New York 1965.

Kimambo, I.; Temu, A.:
A History of Tanzania. Nairobi 1969.

Kirk, W.:
The North-East Monsoon and some aspects of African History. In: Journal of African    History 3. 1962.

Kirkman, J.:
The Arab City of Gedi. Oxford 1954.

Men and Monuments of the East African Coast. London 1964.

The Coast of Kenya as a factor in the Trade and Culture of the Indian Ocean. In: Sociétés et Compagnies de Commerce en Orient et dans l’Océan Indien, 247-253. Paris 1970.

Ki-Zerbo, J.; Niane, D.:
General History of Africa. Vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century. S.: 181-190: The Development of Swahili Civilization. Paris / Oxford / Berkeley 1997.

Kusimba, C.:

The Rise and fall of the Swahili States. Walnut Creek 1999.

Lewcock, R.:

Architectural Connections between Africa and Parts of the Indian Ocean Littoral. London 1976.

Lewis, I.:

A Modern History of the Somali. Athens 2002.

Low, D.; Smith, A.:

History of East Africa, Vol. III. Oxford 1976.

Marissel, J.:

Le commerce zanzibarite dans l’Afrique des Grands Lacs au XIXe siècle. In: Revue Francaise d’Histoire d’Outre-Mer. 1978.

Marsh, Z.; Kingsnorth, G.:

A History of East Africa. An Introductory Survey. Cambridge 1972.

Martin, B.:

Arab Migrations to East Africa in Medieval Times. In: International Journal of African Historical Studies 7, 367-390. 1974.

Mathew, G.:

Recent Discoveries in East African Archaeology. In: Antiquity. December 1953.


The Culture of the East African Coast in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. In:     Man 61. 1956.


The East Coast Cultures. In: Africa South 2/2, 59 ff. 1958.

The Land of Zanj. In: Oliver, R.: The Dawn of African History. S.: 45-52. Oxford 1961.

Maugham, R.:

Portuguese East Africa. Cambridge 2009.

Maxon, R.:

East Africa: An Introductory History. University of West Virginia 2009.

Maxon, R.; Ofcansky, T.:

Historical Dictionary of Kenya. Lanham 2000.

Mazrui, A.; Shariff, I.:

The Swahili. Idiom and Identity of an African People. Trenton 1994.

McCall, D.:

Eastern African History. New York 1969.

Middleton, J.:

The World of the Swahili. New Haven 1992.

Newitt, M.:

The Comoro Islands in Indian Ocean Trade before the 19th Century. In: Cahiers d’Études Africaines 33, 139-154. 1974.


East Africa and Indian Ocean Trade, 1500-1800. In: Das Gupta, A.; Pearson, M.: India and the Indian Ocean, 201-223. Calcutta 1987.


A History of Mozambique. London 1995.

A Short History of Mozambique. London 2017.

Nicholls, C.:

The Swahili Coast 1798-1856. London 1971.

Ochieng, W.:

A Modern History of Kenya 1895-1980. London 1989.

Odhiambo, A.:

A History of East Africa. London 1978.

Ofcansky, T.; Yeager, R.:

Historical Dictionary of Tanzania. Lanham 1997.

Ogot, B.:

Zamani, a Survey of East African History: Nairobi 1974.


General History of Africa. Vol. V: Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century.        S.: 368-380: East Africa: The Coast. Paris / Oxford / Berkeley 1999.

Oliver, R.:

The Missionary Factor in East Africa. London 1952.

Oliver, R.; Mathew, G.:

History of East Africa, Vol. I. Oxford 1963.

Oliver, R.; Fagan, B.:

Africa in the Iron Age, 500 BC to Ad 1400. S.: 191-202: Eastern Africa and the Outside World, 1000-1400. Cambridge 1975.


Patel, K.:

History of East Africa. Nairobi 1964.

Pearce, F.:

Zanzibar: The Island Metropolis of Eastern Africa. London 1920.

Pearson, M.:

Port Cities and Intruders: The Swahili Coast, India, and Portugal in the Early Modern Era. Baltimore 1999.

Phillipson, D.:

African Archaeology. S.: 221-224: The East Coast of Africa. Cambridge 1993.

Posnansky, M.:

Prelude to East African History. Oxford 1966.

Pouwels, R.:

The Medieval Foundations of East African Islam. In: International Journal of African Historical Studies 11, 201-227; 393-409. 1978.


Horn and Crescent: Cultural Change and Traditional Islam on the East African Coast 800-1900. Cambridge 1987.


Africa and the Middle Eastern World, 600-1500. Oxford 2006.

Rashidi, R.:

African Presence in Early Asia. Journal of African Civilizations 7/1. Rutgers State University. 2009.

Reid, R.:

Warfare in Pre-Colonial Eastern Africa. Oxford 2007.

Reusch, R.:

History of East Africa. Stuttgart 1954.

Richards, A.:

The Multi-Cultural States of East Africa. Montreal 1970.

Ricks, T.:

Persian Gulf Seafaring and East Africa, Ninth – Twelfth Centuries. In: International Journal of African Historical Studies 3, 339-357. 1970.

Roberts, A.:

Tanzania before 1900. Nairobi 1968.

Rushohora, N.:

Pre-Colonial East Africa: A Historical Anthropology Guide. Saarbrücken 2012.

Saeed, M.; Setia, G.:

India and East Africa. Delhi 1986.

Salim, A.:

State Formation in Eastern Africa. Nairobi 1984.

Sarfo, K.:

History of Africa. S.: 65-78: History of East Africa. Dubuque/Iowa 1993.

Schmidt, P.:

Iron Technology in East Africa. Bloomington 1997.

Schoff, W.:

The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. London 1912.

Schuerkens, U.:

Geschichte Afrikas. S.: 104-115: Ostafrika. Köln 2009.

Sheriff, A.:

The Rise of a commercial Empire: An Aspect of the Economic History of Zanzibar 1770-1873. London 1971.


Zanzibar under Colonial Rule. London et al. 1991.


Sheriff, A.; Ho, E.:

The Indian Ocean. London 2014.

Sik, E.:

The History of Black Africa. Vol. 1, Part Two, Chapter IV. Black Africa in the Age of Primitive Accumulation. S. 150-162: The East Coast. Budapest 1966.

Smith, A.:

The Indian Ocean Zone. In: Birmingham, D.; Martin, P.: History of Central Africa, Vol. I, S.: 205-244. New York/London 1983.

Sonderegger, A.:

Kurze Geschichte des Alten Afrika: Von den Anfängen bis 1600. S.: 161-173: Die Swahili-Zivilisation des ostafrikanischen Küstenraums. Wiesbaden 2017.

Spear, T.:

Kenya’s Past. London 1981.

Stigand, C.:

The Land of Zinj. London 1913.

Strandes, J.:

The Portuguese Period in East Africa. Nairobi 1961.

Stuhlmann, F.:

Beiträge zur Geschichte von Ostafrika. Berlin 1909.

Sutton, J.:

The East African Coast. Nairobi 1966.


Early Trade in Eastern Africa. Nairobi 1973.


A Thousand Years of East Africa. Nairobi 1990.

Toussaint, A.:

Histoire de l’Ile Maurice. Paris 1974.

Trimingham, J.:

Islam in East Africa. Oxford 1964.

Verin, P.:

Arabes et Islamisés à Madagascar et dans l’Océan Indien. Tananarive 1967.

Ward, K.; Wild-Wood, E.:

East Africa Revival. History and Legacies. Burlington 2012.

Ward, W.; White, L.:

East Africa. A Century of Change 1870-1970. New York 1971.

Were, G.; Wilson, D.:

East Africa through a Thousand Years: A History of the Years AD 1000 to the Present Day. Accra 1987.

Wheathley, P.:

The Land of Zanj. London 1904.

Wheeler, M.:

Archaeology in East Africa. In: Tanganyika Notes and Records 40. 1955.

Der Fernhandel des Römischen Reiches. S.: 117-121: Ostafrika. München 1965.

Wright, H.:

Trade and Politics on the Eastern Littoral of Africa, AD 800-1300. In: Shaw, T.; Sinclair, P.; Andah, B.; Okpoko, A.: The Archaeology of Africa. Food, Metals and Towns. S.: 658-672. London / New York 1993.

Wright, M.:

East Africa, 1870-1905. In: Cambridge History of Africa 6, 539-591. Cambridge 1985.


Sklaverei und Sklavenhandel:

Abdussamad H. Ahmad:

Trading in Slaves in Bela-Shangul and Gumuz, Ethiopia, 1897-1938. In: Journal of African History 40/3, 433-446. 1999.

Abir, M.:

The Ethiopian Slave Trade and its relation to the Islamic World. In: Willis, J.: The Servile Estate, 121-134. London 1986.

Addison, J.; Hazareesingh, K.:

A New History of Mauritius. P.: 45-50: The Impact of British Rule and the Abolition of Slavery. Rose-Hill 1993.

Ahmad, A.:

Ethiopian Slave Exports at Matamma, Massawa and Tajura, 1830-1885. In: Slavery & Abolition 9/3, 93-102. 1988.

Akinola, G.:

Slavery and Slave Revolts in the Sultanate of Zanzibar in the Nineteenth Century. In: Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria 6/2, 215-228. 1972.

Ali, S.S.:

The African Dispersal in the Deccan. From Medieval to Modern Times. Hyderabad 1996.

Allain, J.:

Slavery and the League of Nations: Ethiopia as a civilised Nation. In: Journal of the History of International Law 8, 213-244. 2006.

Allen, R.B.:

Marronage and the Maintenance of Public Order in Mauritius, 1721-1835. In: Slavery & Abolition 4/3, 217-219. 1983.


Economic Marginality and the Rise of the Free Population of Colour in Mauritius, 1767-1830. In: Slavery & Abolition 10/2, 126-150. 1989.


Slaves, Freedmen and Indentured Laborers in Colonial Mauritius. Cambridge 1999.


Licentious and Unbridled Proceedings. The Illegal Slave Trade to Mauritius and the Seychelles during the Early Nineteenth Century. In: Journal of African History 42/1, 91-116. 2001.


The Mascarene Slave Trade and Labour Migration in the Indian Ocean during the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. In: Slavery & Abolition 24/2, 33-50. 2003.


Marronage and its Legacy in Mauritius and the Colonial Plantation World. In: Slavery & Abolition 25/2, 1-17. 2004.


Free Women of Colour and Socio-Economic Marginality in Mauritius 1767-1830. In: Slavery & Abolition 26/2, 181-197. 2005.


A Traffic Repugnant to Humanity: Children, the Mascarene Slave Trade and British Abolitionism. In: Slavery & Abolition 27/2, 219-236. 2006.


The constant demand of the French: The Mascarene Slave Trade and the Worlds of the Indian Ocean and Atlantic during the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. In: Journal of African History 49/1, 43-72. 2008.


European Slave Trading in the Indian Ocean. In: Journal of World History 21/1, 45-73. 2010.


European Slave Trading in the Indian Ocean, 1500-1850. Athens 2014.

Allina, E.:

Slavery by Any Other Name. Charlottesville 2012.

Alpers, E.A.:

The East African Slave Trade. Nairobi 1967.


The French Slave Trade in East Africa 1721-1810. In: Cahiers d’Etudes Africaines 10/1, 80-124. 1970.


Ivory and Slaves in East Central Africa. Berkeley / Los Angeles 1975.


The East African Slave Trade. In: Konczacki, Z.: An Economic History of Tropical Africa.   Vol. 1: The Pre-Colonial Period, 206-216. London 1977a.


Madagascar and Mozambique in the Nineteenth Century. In: Omaly sy Anio 5-6, 37-53. 1977b.


The Impact of the Slave Trade on East Central Africa in the Nineteenth Century. In: Inikori, J.: Forced Migration. The Impact of the Export Slave Trade on African Societies, S. 242-274. London 1982.


The Story of Swema: Female Vulnerability in Nineteenth Century East Africa. In: Robertson, C.; Klein, M.: Women and Slavery in Africa, 185-219. Madison 1983.


Slave Trade: Eastern Africa. In: Middleton, J.: Encyclopedia of Africa South of the Sahara, Vol. 4. S. 94-97. New York 1997a.


The African Diaspora in the Northwestern Indian Ocean. In: Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 17, 62-81. 1997b.


Recollecting Africa: Diasporic Memory in the Indian Ocean World. In: African Studies Review 43/1, 83-99. 2000.


Flight to Freedom: Escape from Slavery among bonded Africans in the Indian Ocean World, 1750-1962. In: Slavery & Abolition 24/2, 51-68. 2003.


The Idea of Marronage: Reflections on Literature and Politics in Réunion. In: Slavery & Abolition 25/2, 18-29. 2004.


Mozambique and Mozambiques: Slave Trade and Diaspora on a Global Scale. In: Benigna Zimba; et al.: Slave Routes and Oral Tradition in Southeastern Africa, 39-61. Maputo 2005.


The Other Middle Passage: The African Slave Trade in the Indian Ocean. In: Christopher, E.; et al.: Many Middle Passages, 20-38. 2007.


Representations of Children in the East African Slave Trade. In: Slavery & Abolition 30/1,   27-40. 2009a.


Slavery in the Great Lakes Region of East Africa. In: Slavery & Abolition 30/1, 139-141. 2009b.

Alpers, E.; Campbell, G.:

Resisting Bondage in Indian Ocean, Africa and Asia. London / New York 2006.

Alpers, E.; Teelock, V.:

History, Memory and Identity. Port Louis 2001.

Anderson, C.:

Convicts in the Indian Ocean: Transportation from South Asia to Mauritius, 1815-1853. New York 2000.

André, E.:

De l’Esclavage à Madagascar. Paris 1899.


Die Antisklaverei-Bewegung und Deutsch-Ostafrika. In: Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 1, 349-355. 1888.


Sklavenverkäufe in Dar es Salaam. In: Vorwärts, 25. August 1900.


Slavery in East Africa. In: Church Missionary Intelligencer 26, 620-622. 1901.


Slavery in German East Africa. In: The Moslem World, 437. 1917.

Antunes, L.F.D.:

The Trade Activities of the Banyans in Mozambique, 1686-1777. In: Matthew, K.S.: Mariners, Merchants and Oceans, 301-332. New Delhi 1995.

Arafat, W.:

The Attitude of Islam to Slavery. In: Islamic Quarterly 10/1-2, 12-18. 1966.

Arasaratnam, S.:

Slave Trade in the Indian Ocean in the Seventeenth Century. In: Matthew, K.S.: Mariners, Merchants and Oceans, 195-208. New Delhi 1995.

Armstrong, J.:

Madagascar and the Slave Trade in the Seventeenth Century. In: Omaly sy Anio 7-10, 211-233. 1983 / 1984.

Asante, M.:

The History of Africa. The Quest for Eternal Harmony. S.: 222-256: Resisting European and Arab Slave Traders. London / New York 2007.

Asgarally, I.:

La révolte des esclaves dans les Mascareignes. Sainte Clotilde 1980.

Atmore, A.:

Eastern Africa: The Trading Sphere of the Swahili Arabs. In: Oliver, R.; Sanderson, G.: The Cambridge History of Africa, Vol. 6: from 1870 to 1905. S. 70-77. Cambridge 1985.

Austen, R.A:

The Islamic Red Sea Slave Trade. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Ethiopian Studies, 443-467. Chicago 1979.


From the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean: European Abolition, the African Slave Trade, and Asian Economic Structures. In: Eltis, D.; Walvin, J.: The Abolition of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 117-139. Madison 1981.


The 19th Century Islamic Slave Trade from East Africa. In: Slavery & Abolition 9/3, 21-44. 1988.

Baer, M.; Schröter, O.:

Eine Kopfjagd: Deutsche in Ostafrika. S.: 46-48: Sklavenlotterie. Berlin 2001.

Baker, F.:

A Description of Mauritian Creole. London 1972.

Baker, S.:

Ismailia: A Narrative of the Expedition to Central Africa for the Suppression of the Slave Trade. 2 Bde. London 1874.

Ballantyne, D.:

Black Ivory: A Tale of Adventure among the Slavers of East Africa. London 1878.

Baptiste, F.; et al.:

Africans in the Medieval Deccan, 1400-1650. In: Robbins, K.; et al.: African Elites in India, 44-67. Ahmedabad 2006.

Barassin, J.:

La révolte des esclaves à l’île de Bourbon (Réunion) au XVIIIe siècle. In: Mouvement de Populations dans l’Ocean Indien, 354-371. Paris 1979.


Barker, A.:

Distorting the Record of Slavery and Abolition: The British Anti Slavery Movement and Mauritius, 1826-1837. In: Slavery & Abolition 14/3, 185-207. 1993.


Slavery and Antislavery in Mauritius 1810-1833. New York 1996.

Bauss, R.:

The Portuguese Slave Trade from Mocambique to Portuguese India and Macau and Comments on Timor 1750-1850. In: Camoes Center Quarterly 6/7, 21-26. 1997.

Beachey, R.:

A Collection of Documents on the Slave Trade of Eastern Africa. London 1976a.


The Slave Trade of Eastern Africa. London 1976b.


Some Observations on the Volume of the Slave Trade of Eastern Africa in the 19th Century. In: African Historical Demography, S. 365-372. Edinburgh 1977.

Beech, M.:

Slavery on the East Coast of Africa. In: Journal of the African Society 15/58, 145-149. 1916.

Benedict, B.:

Slavery and Indenture in Mauritius and Seychelles. In: Watson, J.: Asian and African Systems of Slavery, 135-168. Oxford 1980.

Benoit, G.:

The Afro-Mauritians: An Essay. Moka 1985.

Besteman, C.L.:

Unraveling Somalia: Race, Violence and the Legacy of Slavery. Philadelphia 1999.

Bialuschewski, A.:

Pirates, Slavers and the Indigenous Population in Madagascar, 1690-1715. In: International Journal of African Historical Studies 38/3, 401-425. 2005.

Bilger, H.:

Verführung und Last der Freiheit. Probleme der Entwicklungspolitik dargestellt an den Beispielen Kenya und Tanzania. S.: 67-75: Sklaverei und Sklavenhandel. Konstanz 1972.

Bissoondoyal, U.; Servansing, S.:

Slavery in South West Indian Ocean. Moka 1989.

Bloch, M.:

Social Implications of Freedom for Merina and Zafimaniry Slaves. In: Kent, R.K.: Madagascar in History, 269-297. Albany 1979.


Modes of Production and Slavery in Madagascar. In: Watson, J.: Asian and African Systems of Slavery. Berkeley 1980.

Bradley, R.:

The Slave Trade of Eastern Africa. London 1976.

Brantley, C.:

The Giriama and Colonial Resistance in Kenya, 1800-1920. S.: 22-30; 44-51; 64-70.  Los Angeles 1981.


Briand, B.:

Regards sur l’esclavage à l’esclavage à l’île Maurice. In: France-Afrique. Novembre 1965.

Brode, H.:

Tippo Tib. London 1907.

Brown, Y.:

Zanzibar – Mary Allen and the East African Slave Trade. Shrewsbury 2005.

Burdo, A.:

Les Arabes dans l’Afrique Centrale. Paris 1885.

Burroughs, P.:

The Mauritius Rebellion of 1832 and the Abolition of British Colonial Slavery. In: Journal of Colonial and Commonwealth History 4, 243-265. 1976.

Busse, J.:

Die Sklaverei und die Frage ihrer Aufhebung in Deutsch-Ostafrika. In: Afrika 7, 32-40. 1900.

Campbell, G.:

Madagascar and the Slave Trade 1810-1895. In: Journal of African History 22/2, 203-227. 1981.


Madagascar and Mozambique in the Slave Trade of the Western Indian Ocean, 1800-1861. In: Slavery & Abolition 9/3, 166-193. 1988a.


Slavery and Fanompoana: The Structure of Forced Labour in Imerina (Madagascar), 1790-1861. In: Journal of African History 29/3, 463-486. 1988b.


The East African Slave Trade 1861-1895. In: International Journal of African Historical Studies 22, 1-26. 1989.


Disease, Cattle, and Slaves: The Development of Trade between Natal and Madagascar, 1875-1904. In: African Economic History 19, 105-135. 1990 / 1991.


The Structure of Slavery in Indian Ocean, Africa and Asia. London / New York 2003a.


Introduction: Slavery and other forms of unfree labour in the Indian Ocean World. In: Slavery & Abolition 24/2, 9-32. 2003b.


Abolition and its Aftermath in Indian Ocean, Africa and Asia. London / New York 2005a.


African Diaspora in Asia. In: Encyclopedia of Diasporas Part I, 3-15. 2005b.


Sklaverei und andere Formen unfreier Arbeit in der Welt des Indischen Ozeans. In: Eckert, A.; Grau, I.; Sonderegger, A.: Afrika 1500-1900. Geschichte und Gesellschaft, S. 89-112. Wien 2010.


Slavery in the Indian Ocean World. In: Heuman, G.; Burnard, T.: The Routledge History of Slavery, 52-63. New York 2011.

Campbell, G. ; Alpers, E. :

Slavery, Forced Labour and Resistance in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia. In: Slavery & Abolition 25/2, 9-27. 2004.

Campbell, G.; Miers, S.; Miller, J.:

Women and Slavery I. Africa, the Indian Ocean World and the Medieval North Atlantic. Athens 2007.

Campbell, G.; Stanziani, A.:

Bonded Labour and Debt in the Indian Ocean World. London 2013.

Capela, J.:

O trafico de escravos nos portos de Mocambique, 1733-1904. Porto 2002.

Capela, J.; Medeiros, E.:

O trafico de escravos de Mocambique para as ilhas do Indico 1720-1902. Maputo 1987.

Caplan, P.:

Madagascar and the Slave Trade, 1810-1895. In: Journal of African History 22, 203-227. 1981.


The East African Slave Trade, 1861-1895. In: International Journal of African Historical Studies 22, 1-26. 1989.

Captain Colomb, R.:

Slave-Catching in the Indian Ocean. London 1873.

Carter, M.:

Indian Slaves in Mauritius, 1729-1834. In: Indian Historical Review 15, 233-247. 1988 / 1989.


The Transition from Slave to Indentured Labour in Mauritius. In: Slavery & Abolition 14/1, 114-130. 1993.


Slavery and unfree Labour in the Indian Ocean. In: History Compass 4/5, 800-813. 2006.

Carter, M.; Gerbeau, H.:

Covert Slaves and Coveted Coolies in the Early 19th Mascareignes. In: Slavery & Abolition 9/3, 194-208. 1988.

Cassanelli, L.:

Social Construction on the Somali Frontier: Bantu Former Slave Communities in the Nineteenth Century. In: Kopytoff, I.: The African Frontier, 216-238. Bloomington 1987.


The Ending of Slavery in Italian Somalia: Liberty and the Control of Labor, 1890-1935. In: Miers, S.; Roberts, R.: The End of Slavery in Africa, 308-331. Wisconsin 1988.

Cave, B.:

The End of Slavery in Zanzibar and British East Africa. In: African Affairs 9/33, 20-33. 1909.

Chang Hsing-lang:

The Importation of Negro Slaves to China under the Tang Dynasty. In: Bulletin of the Catholic University of Peking 7, 37-59. Peking 1930.

Chatterjee, I.; Eaton, R.M.:

Slavery and South Asian History. Bloomington 2006.

Chattopadhyay, A.:

Slavery in India. Calcutta 1959.

Chauhan, R.:

Africans in India. From Slavery to Royalty. New Delhi 1995.

Christopher, E.; et al.:

Many Middle Passages: Forced Migration and the Making of the Modern World. Berkeley / Los Angeles 2007.

Church Missionary Society:

The Slave Trade of East Africa. London 1868.

Clarence-Smith, W.G.:

The Economics of the Indian Ocean and Red Sea Slave Trade in the Nineteenth Century. In: Slavery & Abolition 9/3, 1-20. 1988.


The Economics of the Indian Ocean Slave Trade in the Nineteenth Century. London 1989.

Islam and the Abolition of Slavery. Oxford 2006.

Colebrook, W.; Blair, W.:

Report of the Commission of Inquiry upon the Slave Trade at Mauritius. London 1829.

Coleman, S.J.:

Gradual Abolition or Immediate Abolition of Slavery? The Political, Social and Economic Quandary of Emperor Haile Selassie I. In: Slavery & Abolition 29/1, 65-82. 2008.

Collins, R.:

The African Slave Trade to Asia and the Indian Ocean Islands. In: African and Asian Studies 5/3-4, 325-347. 2006.

Collins, R.; Burns, J.:

A History of Sub-Saharan Africa. S.: 228-250: The Asian Slave Trade. Cambridge 2007.

Cooper, F.:

The Treatment of Slaves on the Kenya Coast in the Nineteenth Century. In: Kenya Historical Review 1/2, 87-108. 1973.


Plantation Slavery on the East Coast of Africa. New Haven 1977.


From Slaves to Squatters: Plantation Labour and Agriculture in Zanzibar and Coastal Kenya, 1890-1925. London 1980.


Islam and Cultural Hegemony: The Ideology of Slaveowners on the East African Coast. In: Lovejoy, P.: The Ideology of Slavery in Africa, 270-307. Beverly Hills 1981.

Cornevin, R. und M.:

Geschichte Afrikas von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart. S.: 308-309: Die Sansibar Araber und der Sklavenhandel. Frankfurt/M./Berlin/Wien 1980.

Coupland, R.:

The Exploitation of East Africa 1856-1890. The Slave Trade and the Scramble. London 1939.


The Arab Slave Trade. In: McEwan, P.J.M.: Nineteenth-Century Africa, 199-205. Oxford 1968.

Curtin, P.:

Laboratory for the Oral History of Slavery: The Island of Lamu on the Kenya Coast. In: American Historical Review 88/4, 858-882. 1983.


Lamu, Slave Trade, and British Efforts to Suppress. In: Slavery & Abolition 7/2, 148-159. 1986.

Curtin, P.; Feierman, S.; Thompson, L.; Vansina, J.:

African History. S.: 391-418: A Century of Ironies in East Africa (1780-1890). London / New York 1984.

Dannreuther, T.:

Slave Cruising of Zanzibar and Pemba, 1887-1890-1892. In: Naval Review 19, 45-68. 1931.

Darley, H.:

Slaves and Ivory: A Record of Adventure and Exploration in the unknown Sudan, and among the Abyssinian Slave-Raiders. London 1926.

Datta, A.:

From Bengal to the Cape: Bengali Slaves in South Africa. Bloomington 2013.

Davidson, B.:

Vom Sklavenhandel zur Kolonialisierung. Afrikanisch-Europäische Beziehungen zwischen 1500 und 1900. S.: 147-170: Das Schicksal der Ostküste. Hamburg 1966.


The Growth of African Civilisation. East and Central Africa to the Late Nineteenth Century. S.: 151-155: A New Slave Trade. London 1967.


African Civilization Revisited. S.: 140-141: Chao Ju-Kua: Slaves from Madagascar. Trenton 1993.

De Langle, F.:

La traite des esclaves à la côte orientale d’Afrique. Paris 1873.

Depelchin, J.:

The Transition from Slavery, 1873-1914. In: Sheriff, A.; Ferguson, E.: Zanzibar under Colonial Rule, 11-35. London / Nairobi / Dar es Salaam / Athens 1991.

De Souza, T.R.:

French Slave Trade in Portuguese Goa, 1773-1791. In: De Souza, T.R.: Essays in Goan History, 119-132. New Delhi 1989.

Deutsch, J.:

Slavery, Coastal Identity and the End of Slavery in German and British East Africa. In: Heidrich, J.: Changing Identities, 215-224. Berlin 1994.


Freeing Slaves in German East Africa, 1890-1914. In: Miers, S.; Klein, M.: Slavery in Colonial Africa, 109-132. London 1999.


Absence of Evidence is no Proof: Slave Resistance under German Colonial Rule in East Africa. In: Abbink, J.; et al: Rethinking Resistance, 170-187. Leiden 2003.


Emancipation without Abolition in German East Africa, 1884-1914. Oxford / Dar es Salaam / Ohio 2006.

Devereux, W.:

A Cruise in the Gorgon of Eighteen Months in the Suppression of the Slave Trade on the East Coast of Africa. London 1869.

Domenichini-Ramiaramana, B.:

Aspects de l’esclavage sours la monarchie Merina d’après les textes législatifs et réglementaires. In: Omaly sy Anio 15, 52-98. 1982.

Doulton, L.:

The Royal Navy’s Anti-Slavery Campaign in the Western Indian Ocean, 1860-1890. University of Hull 2010.

Drescher, S.; Engerman, S.:

A Historical Guide to World Slavery. S.: 41-46: East Africa. S.: 248-252: Islamic Law. S.: 367-370: Trans-Saharan Trade. Oxford 1998.

Eastman, C.:

Women, Slaves and Foreigners: African Cultural Influences and Group Processes in the Formation of Northern Swahili Coastal Society. In: International Journal of African Historical Studies 23, 1-20. 1988.

Edgerton, R.B.:

The Troubled Heart of Africa: A History of the Congo. S.: 62-63; 79-81; 83-85. New York 2002.

Edwards, J.:

Slavery, the Slave Trade, and the Economic Reorganization of Ethiopia, 1916-1934. In: African Economic History 11, 3-14. 1982.

Eldredge, E.; Morton, F.:

Slavery in South Africa. Pietermaritzburg 1994.

Emmer, P.:

Colonialism and Migration: Indentured Labour before and after Slavery. Dordrecht 1986.

Eno, O.A.:

The Abolition of Slavery and the Aftermath Stigma: The Case of the Bantul / Jareer People on the Benadir Coast of Southern Somalia. In: Campbell, G.: Abolition and its Aftermath in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia, 83-93. London / New York 2005.

Erdem, Y.H.:

Slavery in the Ottoman Empire and its Demise, 1800-1909. London 1996.

Eve, P.:

Les esclaves de Bourbon. Paris 2003.

Ewald, J.:

The Nile Valley System and the Red Sea Slave Trade, 1820-1880. In: Slavery & Abolition 9/3, 71-92. 1988.


East Africa. In: Drescherand, S.; Engerman, S.: A Historical Guide to World Slavery, 41-46. New York 1998.


Crossers of the Sea: Slaves, Freedmen and other Migrants in the Northwestern Indian Ocean, 1750-1914. In: American Historical Review 105/1, 69-91. 2000.

Falk Moore, S.:

Social Facts & Fabrications: Customary Law on Kilimanjaro, 1880-1980. S.: 28-37. Cambridge 1986.

Farrant, L.:

Tippu Tip and the East African Slave Trade. New York 1975.

Feeley-Harnik, G.:

The King’s Men in Madagascar: Slavery and Kingship in Sakalava Monarchy. In: Africa 52, 31-50. 1982.

Feierman, S.:

The Shambaa Kingdom: A History. S.: 135-149; 168-186. Madison 1974.

Fernyhough, T.:

Slavery and the Slave Trade in Southern Ethiopia in the 19th Century. In: Slavery & Abolition 9/3, 103-130. 1988.


Serfs, Slaves and Shifta. Modes of Production and Resistance in Pre-Revolutionary Ethiopia. Addis Ababa 2010.

Filliot, J.:

La traite des esclaves vers les Mascareignes au XVIIIe siècle. Paris 1974.

Fischer, R.:

Korallenstädte in Afrika. Die Vorkoloniale Geschichte der Ostküste. S.: 53-65: Sklaven und Elfenbein. Oberdorf 1984.

Fisher, A.; Fisher, H.:

Slavery and Muslim Society in Africa. London 1970.

Fisher, A.W.:

The Sale of Slaves in the Ottoman Empire. In: Beseri Bilimler – Humanities 6, 149-174. 1978.

Fisher, H.:

Slavery in the History of Muslim Black Africa. London 2001.

Flint, J.E.:

Zanzibar, 1890-1950. In: Harlow, V.; et al.: History of East Africa, Vol. II. S.: 645-651. Oxford 1965.


Fotheringham, L.:

Adventures in Nyasaland: A Two Year Struggle with the Arab Slave Dealers in Central Africa. London 1891.

Froberville, E.:

Notes sur les mœurs, coutumes et traditions des amakoua, sur le commerce et la traite des esclaves dans l’Afrique Orientale. In: Bulletin de la Société Geographie 8, 311-329. 1847.

Fürstenberg, E.; Ruppert, H.:

Der Süd-Sudan in Sklavenketten. Regensburg 1969.


Fuma, S.:

L’Esclavagisme à la Réunion, 1794-1848. Pairs 1992.

Gann, L.H.:

The Slave Trade in British Central Africa. In: McEwan, P.J.M.: Nineteenth-Century Africa, 388-397. Oxford 1968.

Gasparini, J.:

Sulla liberazione degli schiavi e servi domestici e sui metodi di assistenza e di tutela nel primo periodo della liberazione. Monografie e Rapporti 1. Rom 1912.

Gerbeau, H.:

The Slave Trade in the Indian Ocean. In: The African Slave Trade from the Fifteenth to the Nineteenth Century, 184-210. UNESCO/Paris 1979.

Githige, R.:

Issue of Slavery: Relations between the CMS and the State on the East African Coast Prior to 1895. In: Journal of Religion in Africa 3, 209-225. 1986.

Glassman, J.:

The Runaway Slave in Coastal Resistance to Zanzibar. Madison 1983.


The Bondsman’s New Clothes: The Contradictory Consciousness of Slave Resistance on the Swahili Coast. In: Journal of African History 32, 277-312. 1991.

Gordon, M.:

L’Esclavage dans le Monde Arabe. Paris 1987.


Slavery in the Arab World. New York 1992.

Graeber, D.:

Lost People: Magic and the Legacy of Slavery in Madagascar. Bloomington 2007.

Griaule, M.:

L’esclavage en Abyssinie. Paris 1934.

Gstrein, H.:

Unter Menschenhändlern im Sudan: Daniele Comboni, 1831-1881. St. Augustin 1978.

Guluma, G.:

Subsistence, Slavery and Violence in the Lower Omo Valley, 1898-1940. In: Northeast African Studies 12/1. 1990.

Haile, G.:

From the Markets of Damot to that of Barara: A Note on Slavery in Medieval Ethiopia. In: Paideuma 27, 173-180. 1981.

Hardyman, J.T.:

The Madagascar Slave Trade to the Americas, 1632-1830. In: Colloque de Lourenço-Marqués sur Océan Indien et Méditerranée, 501-521. Paris 1964.

Harms, R.W.; et al.:

Indian Ocean Slavery in the Age of Abolition. Yale 2013.

Harries, P.:

Slavery, social incorporation, and surplus extraction. The Nature of Free and Unfree Labour in South-East Africa. In: Journal of African History 22, 309-330. 1981.


Middle Passages in the Southwest Indian Ocean. In: Journal of African History 55/2, 173-190. 2014a.


Slavery, Indenture and Migrant Labour: Maritime Immigration from Mozambique to the Cape, 1780-1880. In: African Studies 73/3, 323-340. 2014b.

Harris, J.:

The African Presence in Asia: Consequences of the East African Slave Trade. Evanston 1971.

Hazell, A.:

Last Slave Market. London 2011.

Heers, J.:

Les négriers de l’Islam: la première traite des Noirs, VIIe – XVIe siècle. Paris 2003.


Les Traites Négrières en Terres d’Islam. Paris 2004.

Herlehy, T.; Morton, R.:

A Coastal Ex-Slave Community in the regional and colonial Economy of Kenya. In: Miers, S.; Roberts, R.: The End of Slavery in Africa, 254-281. Madison 1988.

Hermann, A.:

Über den Sklavenhandel am Viktoria-Nyansa. In: Deutsches Kolonialblatt 4, 43-44. 1893.

Hinde, S.:

The Fall of the Congo Arabs. London 1897.

Hogendorn, J.:

A “supply-side” aspect of the African Slave Trade: The Cowrie Production and Exports of the Maldives. In: Slavery & Abolition 2/1, 31-52. 1981.

Hooper, J.:

Feeding Globalization: Madagascar and the Provisioning Trade, 1600-1800. Indian Ocean Studies Series. 2017.

Hooper, J.; Eltis, D.:

The Indian Ocean in Transatlantic Slavery. In: Slavery & Abolition 34/3, 353-375. 2013.

Hopper, M.S.:

The African Presence in Arabia, 1840-1940. Los Angeles 2006.


Globalization and the Economics of Slavery in Arabia in the Age of Empire. In: Journal of African Development 12/1, 125-146. 2010.


East Africa and the End of the Indian Ocean Slave Trade. In: Journal of African Development 13/1-2, 39-66. 2011.

Hrbek, I.:

General History of Africa, Vol. III: Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century. S.: 337-347: The African Diaspora in Asia. Paris / London / Berkeley 1992.

Hunwick, J.:

Black Africans in the Islamic World. In: Tarikh 5/4, 20-40. 1978.

Hutchinson, E.:

The Slave Trade of East Africa. London 1874.

Iliffe, J.:

The African Poor. S.: 59-63: Poverty and Power. Cambridge 1987.

Ingham, K.:

A History of East Africa. S.: 36-70: Arab Traders and the Tribes of the Interior. London 1963.

Ingram, J.:

Geschichte der Sklaverei und Hörigkeit. S.: 150-176: Die Sklaverei im Mohammedanischen Orient. Dresden/Leipzig 1895. (Reprint Leipzig).

Isaacman, B.:

Slavery and Social Stratification among the Sena of Mozambique. In: Miers, S.; Kopytoff, I.: Slavery in Africa, 105-120. Madison 1977.

Isaacman, A.; Isaacman, B.:

Mozambique. From Colonialism to Revolution, 1900-1982. S.: 11-59: The Precolonial Period, 1500-1880. Boulder 1983.


Slavery and Beyond: The Making of Men and Chikunda Ethnic Identities in the Unstable World of South-Central Africa, 1750-1920. Portsmouth 2004.

Jayasuriya, S.:

African Identity in Asia: Cultural Effects of Forced Migration. Princeton 2009.


The African Diaspora in Asian Trade Routes and Cultural Memories. Lewiston 2010.

Jayasuriya, S.; Pankhurst, R.:

The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean. Trenton 2003.

Jones, A.:

Afrika bis 1850. Neue Fischer Weltgeschichte, Band 19. S.: 289-292: Sklaverei und interner Sklavenhandel. Frankfurt am Main 2016.

Jones, M.K.:

The Slave Trade at Mauritius, 1811-1829. Oxford 1936.

Jullien, B.:

Île de la Réunion: regards croisés sur l’esclavage, 1794-1848. Saint-Denis 1998.

Jwaideh, A.; Cox, J.:

The Black Slaves of Turkish Arabia during the 19th Century. In: Slavery & Abolition 9/3,    45-59. 1988.

Kalinga, O.; Crosby, C.:

Historical Dictionary of Malawi. S.: 365-366: Slave Trade. African Historical Dictionaries, No. 84. Lanham/London 2001.

Kaniki, M.H.Y.:

Tanzania under Colonial Rule. S.: 36-48; 51-58; 86-90; 119-123; 276-280. London 1979.

Kapteijns, L.:

The Use of Slaves in Pre-colonial Dar Fur: The Case of Masalit, 1870-1905. In: Northeast African Studies 6. 1984.

Karstedt, F.:

Zur Sklavenfrage in Deutsch-Ostafrika. In: Koloniale Rundschau, 616-621. 1913.

Kimambo, I.N.:

Penetration & Protest in Tansania. S.: 38-45. London et al. 1991.

Kisangani, E.F.; Bobb, F.S.:

Historical Dictionary of the Congo. S.: 477-478: Slaves and Slavery. African Historical Dictionaries, No. 112. Lanham / Toronto 2010.

Ki-Zerbo, J.:

Die Geschichte Schwarz-Afrikas. S.: 341-344: Der Sklavenhandel im Osten. Wuppertal 1979.

Kobishanow, Y.M.:

On the Problem of the Sea Voyages of Ancient Africans in the Indian Ocean. In: Journal of African History 6, 137-141. 1965.

Kollman, P.:

The Evangelization of Slaves and Catholic Origins in Eastern Africa. London 2005.

Kuntze, F.:

Der Sklaven-Freikauf in Deutsch-Ostafrika. In: Kolonie und Heimat, 20. Dezember. 1908.

Kurtz, L.S.:

Historical Dictionary of Tanzania. S.: 195-196: Slave Trade. African Historical Dictionaries, No. 15. Metuchen / London 1978.

Kusimba, C.:

Archaeology of Slavery in East Africa. In: African Archaeological Review 21/2, 59-88. 2004.

Larson, P.M.:

Slavery in Central Madagascar: Imerina during the Nineteenth Century. Madison 1987.


History and Memory in the Age of Enslavement: Becoming Merina in Highland Madagascar, 1770-1822. London 2000.


Enslaved Malagasy and „Le Travail de le Parole“in the Pre-Revolutionary Mascarenes. In: Journal of African History 48/3, 457-479. 2007.


The Vernacular Life of the Street: Ratsitatanina and Indian Ocean Créolité 1. In: Slavery & Abolition 29/3, 327-359. 2008.


Ocean of Letters. Language and Creolization in an Indian Ocean Diaspora. Cambridge 2009.

Lattin, J.:

The Arabs as Master Slavers. Englewood 1982.

Leda, F.:

Tippu Tip and the East African Slave Trade. New York 1975.

Lewicki, T.:

Arab Trade in Negro Slaves up to the end of the XVIth Century. In: Africana Bulletin 6, 109-111. 1967.

Lewis, B.:

Race and Slavery in the Middle East. New York 1990.

Liebowitz, D.:

The Physician and the Slave Trade: John Kirk, the Livingstone Expeditions, and the Crusade against Slavery in East Africa. New York 1999.

Liesegang, G.:

A First Look at the Import and Export Trade of Mozambique, 1800-1914. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on the Quantification and Structure of the Import and Export and Long Distance Trade of Africa in the 19th Century, 1800-1913, 452-523. St. Augustin 1983.

Lodhi, A.:

The Institution of Slavery in Zanzibar and Pemba. Uppsala 1973.

Loftus, E.A.:

Elton and the East African Coast Slave-Trade. London 1952.

Loth, H.:

Geschichte Afrikas. Von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart. Teil II: Afrika unter imperialistischer Kolonialherrschaft und die Formierung der antikolonialen Kräfte, 1884-1945. S.: 43-47: Der arabisch-swahilische Handelseinfluss. Berlin 1976.


Sklaverei. Die Geschichte des Sklavenhandels zwischen Afrika und Amerika. S.: 241-255: Der arabische Sklavenhandel und die neue Antisklavereipolitik. Berlin 1981.

Lovejoy, P.:

Transformations in Slavery. A History of Slavery in Africa. S.: 23-43: On the Frontiers of Islam, 1400-1600. S.: 147-149: The Trans-Saharan and Red Sea Trade. S.: 150-152: The East African Trade. S.: 220-246: Slavery in Central, Southern, and Eastern Africa in the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge 1983.


Slavery on the Frontiers of Islam. Princeton 2004.

Ly-Tio-Fane Pineo, H.:

Les esclaves de plantation de l’Île Maurice à la veille de l’abolition, d’après le recensement de 1823. In : Dubois, C. : Histoires d’outre-mer. Aix-en-Provence 1992.

Machado, P.:

A Forgotten Corner of the Indian Ocean: Gujarati Merchants, Portuguese India and the Mozambique Slave Trade, 1730-1830. In: Slavery & Abolition 24/2, 17-32. 2003.

MacKenzie, D.:

A Report on Slavery and the Slave Trade in Zanzibar, Pemba and the Mainland of the British Protectorate of East Africa. In: Anti-Slavery Reporter 15, 69-96. 1895.

Maestri, E.:

Esclavage et abolitions dans l’Océan Indien, 1723-1860. Paris 2002.

Mann, M.:

Sklaverei und Sklavenhandel im Indik, 16. bis 20. Jahrhundert. Working Paper Series 3. Universität Leipzig 2009.


Sahibs, Sklaven und Soldaten. Geschichte des Menschenhandels rund um den Indischen

Ozean. Darmstadt / Mainz 2011.


Slaving, Slavery and Abolition: A View from the Indian Ocean. In: South Asia Chronicle 5, 451-479. 2015.

Manning, P.:

Slavery and African Life. Occidental, Oriental and African Slave Traders. Cambridge 1990.

Mannix, P.:

Black Cargoes. S.: 241-262: Slave Catching in the Indian Ocean. New York 1968.

Marques, J.P.:

Sounds of Silence: Nineteenth Century Portugal and the Abolition of the Slave Trade. Oxford 2006.

Marshall, L.:

Fugitive Slave Communities in the 19th Century Kenya. In: Nyame Akuma 72. 2009.

Martin, E.; Ryan, T.:

A quantitative assessment of the Arab Slave Trade of East Africa, 1770-1896. In: Kenya Historical Review 5, 71-91. 1977.

Martin, J.:

L’affranchissement des esclaves de Mayotte, décembre 1846 – juillet 1847. In: Cahiers des études africaines 16/1-2, 207-233. 1976.

Marx, C.:

Geschichte Afrikas. Von 1800 bis zur Gegenwart. S.: 36-44: Vom Sklavenhandel zum Warenhandel: Zentral- und Ostafrika. Paderborn 2004.

Mathew, J.:

Trafficking Labour: Abolition and the Exchange of Labour across the Arabian Sea, 1861-1947. In: Slavery & Abolition 33/1, 139-156. 2012.

Mazrui, A.M.; Shariff, I.N.:

The Swahili: Idiom and Identity of an African people. S.: 42-43. Trenton 1994.

Mbeki, L.; Van Rossum, M.:

Private Slave Trade in the Dutch Indian Ocean World. In: Slavery & Abolition 38/1, 95-116. 2017.

Mbotela, J.:

The Freeing of Slaves in East Africa. Nairobi 1967.

McAleer, J.:

The Slavery Question in Eastern Africa. In: Journal of Maritime Research 10/1, 23-49. 2008.

McCann, J.:

Children of the House: Slavery and its Suppression in Lasta, Northern Ethiopia, 1916-1935. In: Miers, S.; Roberts, R.: The End of Slavery in Africa, 332-361. Wisconsin 1988.

Médard, H.; Doyle, S.:

Slavery in the Great Lakes Region of East Africa. Oxford 2007.

Méhaud, C.:

Mouvements de populations dans l’Océan Indien. Paris 1980.

Meredith, M.:

The Fortunes of Africa: A 5000-Year History of Wealth, Greed and Endeavour. S.: 281-282. London / New York 2014.

Middleton, J.:

The Immigrant Communities (3): The Arabs of the East African Coast. In: Low, D.A.; Smith, A.: History of East Africa, Vol. III. S.: 490-500. Oxford 1976.


Miers, S.:

Britain and the Suppression of Slavery in Ethiopia. In: Slavery & Abolition 18/3, 257-288. 1997.


Slavery in the Twentieth Century: The Evolution of a Global Problem. Oxford et al. 2003.


Slave Rebellion and Resistance in the Aden Protectorate in the Mid-Twentieth Century. In: Slavery & Abolition 25/2, 80-89. 2004.


Slavery and Slave Trade in Saudi-Arabia and the Arab States on the Persian Gulf, 1921-1963. In: Campbell, G.: Abolition and its aftermath in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia, 120-163. London 2005.

Miller, C.:

A Theme in Variations: A Historical Schema of Slaving in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean Regions. In: Slavery & Abolition 24/2, 169-194. 2003.

Miller, J.C.:

Muslim Slavery and Slaving: A Bibliography. In: Slavery & Abolition 13/1, 249-271. 1992.

Miran, J.:

From Bondage to Freedom on the Red Sea Coast: Manumitted Slaves Egyptian Massawa, 1873-1885. In: Slavery & Abolition 34/1, 135-157. 2013.

Mirzai, B.:

African Presence in Iran: Identity and its Reconstruction in the 19th and 20th Centuries. In: Outre-Mers: Revue d’Histoire 336/337. 2002.

Mirzai, B.; Ismael, M.; Lovejoy, P.:

Slavery, Islam and Diaspora. Trenton 2009.

Monnier, J.-E.:

Esclaves de la canne à sucre: Engagés et planteurs à Nossi-Bé, Madagascar, 1850-1880. Paris 2006.

Montandon, G.:

L’esclavage en Abyssinie. Geneva 1932.


Economic and Political Aspects of the Slave Trade in Ethiopia and the Sudan in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century. In: International Journal of African Historical Studies 32. 1999.

Morton, F.:

Slaves, Fugitives and Freedmen on the Kenya Coast 1873-1907. Syracuse 1976.


Children of Ham: Freed Slaves and Fugitive Slaves on the Kenya Coast 1873-1907. Boulder / Oxford 1990.

Murray, G.:

L’Esclavage dans le monde arabe VIIe-XXe Siècle. Paris 1987.

N’Diaye, T.:

Der verschleierte Völkermord. Die Geschichte des muslimischen Sklavenhandels in Afrika. Reinbek 2010.


Nelson, S.H.:

Colonialism in the Congo Basin, 1880-1940. S.: 43-59. Athens 1994.

Newitt, M.:

Angoche, the slave trade and the Portuguese, 1844-1910. In: Journal of African History 13/4, 659-672. 1972.

Newman, H.:

Banani: The Transition from Slavery to Freedom in Zanzibar and Pemba. London 1898.

Nicolini, B.:

Makran, Oman and Zanzibar: Three-Terminal Cultural Corridor in the Western Indian Ocean, 1799-1856. Leiden 2004.

Noel, K.:

L’esclavage à l’île de France, 1715-1810. Paris 1953.

North Coombes, A.:

The Evolution of the Sugar Cane Culture in Mauritius. Port Louis 1937.


North-Coombes, M.D.:

From Slavery to Indenture: Forced Labour in the Political Economy of Mauritius, 1834-1867. In: Saunders, K.: Indentured Labour in the British Empire, 1834-1920. London 1984.

Northrup, D.:

The Ending of Slavery in the Eastern Belgian Congo. In: Miers, S.; Roberts, R.: The End of Slavery in Africa, 462-482. Wisconsin 1988.

Nwulia, M.:

Britain and Slavery in East Africa. Washington 1975.


The Apprenticeship System in Mauritius. In: African Studies Review 21/1, 89-101. 1978.


The History of Slavery in Mauritius and the Seychelles 1810-1875. Rutherford 1981.

Ogot, B.:

Population Movements between East Africa, the Horn of Africa and the Neighbouring Countries. In: The African Slave Trade from the Fifteenth to the Nineteenth Century, 175-183. UNESCO / Paris 1979.

Ogutu, M.; Kenyanchui, S.:

An Introduction to African History. S.: 133-136: Slave Trade in East and Central Africa. Nairobi 1997.

Okello, B.:

A History of East Africa. P.: 92-102: Slave Trade in East Africa. Kampala 2002.

Oliver, R.:

The African Experience. Major Themes in African History. From Earliest Times to the Present. S.: 116-129: Masters and Slaves. New York 1991.

O’Neill, H.:

The Mozambique and Nyassa Slave Trade. London 1895.

Page, M.:

The Manyema Hordes of Tippu Tip: a case study in social stratification and the Slave Trade in Eastern Africa. In: International Journal of African Historical Studies 7/1, 69-84. 1974.

Page, W.:

Encyclopedia of African History and Culture. From Conquest to Colonization, 1500-1850.    S.: 236-255: Slavery. New York 2001.

Paice, E.:

World War I: The African Front. S.: 155; 161-162; 288. New York 2008.

Pankhurst, R.:

The history of Bareya, Shanqella, and other Ethiopian Slaves from the Borderlands of the Sudan. In: Sudan Notes and Records 63, 1-48. 1977.

Payet, J.:

Histoire de l’esclavage à l’île Bourbon. Paris 1990.

Pearson, M.N.:

Port Cities and Intruders, the Swahili Coast, India and Portugal in the Early Modern Era. Baltimore 1998.

Peerthum, S.:

The Last Slaves: Liberated Africans in 19th Century Mauritius. Port Louis 2003.


Freedom Forbidden: Prison Life of Captured Maroons in Colonial Mauritius, 1766-1839. In: Agorsah, E.K.; Childs, G.T.: Africa and the African Diaspora, 159-174. Bloomington 2006.

Perricone-Viola, A.:

La liberazione degli schiavi nel vecchio Benadir. In: Rivista delle Colonie 10, 882-886. 1936.

Petré-Grenouilleau, O.:

La traite oubliée des négriers musulmans. In: L’Histoire, 48-55. Octobre 2003.

Pipes, D.:

Slave Soldiers and Islam. Yale 1981.

Platt, V.B.:

The East India Company and the Madagascar Slave Trade. In: William & Mary Quarterly 26/4, 548-577. 1969.

Police, D.:

Mauritean Séga: The Trace of the Slave’s Emancipatory Voice. In: The Indian Ocean Review 6, 57-69. 2000.

Popovic, A.:

La Révolte des Esclaves en Iraq au IIIme/IXme siècle. Paris 1976.

Prokosch, E.:

Ins Land der geheimnisvollen Func. Ein Reisebericht aus dem Sudan des 17. Jahrhunderts. Graz / Wien / Köln 1994.

Pruen, C.:

Slavery in East Africa. In: CMIR New Series, 661-665. 1888.

Queiros, M.:

Esclavages – Histoire d’une diversité de l’Océan Indien à l’Atlantique Sud. Paris 1997.

Quenette, L.:

L’abolition de l’esclavage à l’île Maurice. Port Louis 1984.

Rakoto, I.:

L’esclavage dans l’ancien Madagascar. In: Tantara 4/5, 125-137. 1976.


L’esclavage à Madagascar. Antananarivo 1997.


La route des esclaves: Système servile et traite dans l’est malgache. Paris 2000.

Randrianja, S.; Ellis, S.:

Madagascar: A Short History. S.: 99-122: The Slave Trader Kings (1700-1816). London 2009.

Rashidi, R. :

African Presence in Early Asia. New Brunswick 1995.

Ratsivalaka, G.:

La traite européenne des esclaves en Imerina au debut du XIXe siècle. In: Tantara 7/8, 113-135. 1979.


Les malgaches et l’abolition de la traite européenne des esclaves, 1810-1817. Antananarivo 1999.

Reid, R.:

A History of Modern Africa. 1800 to the Present. S.: 42-63: Eastern Intrusions: Slaves and Ivory in Eastern Africa. Oxford 2009.

Reilly, B.:

Slavery, Agriculture, and Malaria in the Arabian Peninsula. University of Ohio 2015.

Renault, F.:

Lavigerie, l’Esclavage Africain et l’Europe 1868-1892. Paris 1971.


La Traite des Esclaves Noirs en Libye au XVIIIe Siècle. In: Journal of African History 23/2, 163-181. 1982.


Tippu Tip. Paris 1987.


La traite des Noirs au Proche-Orient Médiéval VIIe-XIXe Siècle. Paris 1989.

Ricks, T.M.:

Slaves and Slave Traders in the Persian Gulf, 18th and 19th Centuries. In: Slavery & Abolition 9/3, 60-70. 1988.

Romero, P.:

Laboratory for the Oral History of Slavery: The Island of Lamu on the Kenya Coast. In: American Historical Review 88/4, 858-882. 1983.


Where have all the Slaves gone? Emancipation and Post-Emancipation in Lamu, Kenya. In: Journal of African History 27, 497-512. 1986.

Ross, R.:

The Dutch on the Swahili Coast 1776-1778: Two Slaving Journals. In: International Journal of African Historical Studies 19, 305-360. 1986.

Rothermund, D.; Weigelin-Schwiedrzik, S.:

Der Indische Ozean: Das Afro-Asiatische Mittelmeer als Kultur- und Wirtschaftsraum. Wien 2004.

Rotter, G.:

Die Stellung des Negers in der Islamisch-Arabischen Gesellschaft bis zum 16. Jahrhundert. Bonn 1966.

Russel, C.:

General Rigby, Zanzibar and the Slave Trade. London 1935.

Sakarai, L.:

Indian Merchants in East Africa, Part I. In: Slavery & Abolition 1/3, 292-338. 1980.


Indian Merchants in East Africa, Part II. In: Slavery & Abolition 2/1, 2-30. 1981.

Scarr, D.:

Slaving and Slavery in the Indian Ocean. New York 1998.


Seychelles since 1770. History of a Slave and Post-Slave Society. London 2000.

Schicho, W.:

Geschichte Afrikas. S.: 54-62: Der Sklavenhandel. Stuttgart 2010.

Schmidt, R.:

Geschichte des Araber-Aufstandes in Ostafrika. Frankfurt an der Oder 1892.


Deutschlands Kolonien. S.: 179-196: Der ostafrikanische Handel – Elfenbein und Sklaverei. Berlin 1898.


Schuerkens, U.:

Geschichte Afrikas. Eine Einführung. S.: 155-156: Sklavenjagd im nördlichen Zentralafrika. Köln/Weimar/Wien 2009.

Segal, R.:

Islam’s Black Slaves. A History of Africa’s Other Black Diaspora. London 2001.

Selvon, S.:

Historical Dictionary of Mauritius. P.: 186-188: Slavery. Metuchen / London 1991.

Shefiq, A.:

L’esclavage au point de vue musulman. Cairo 1891.

Sheperd, G.:

The Comorians and the East African Slave Trade. In: Watson, J.; Asian and African Systems of Slavery, 73-99. Oxford 1980.

Sheriff, A.:

The Slave Mode of Production along the East African Coast. In: Willis, J.: The Servile Estate, Vol. 2, 157-176. London 1986.


Slaves, Spices and Ivory in Zanzibar: An Integration of an East African Commercial Empire into the World Economy 1770-1873. London 1987.


Localization and Social Composition of the East African Slave Trade, 1858-1873. In: Slavery & Abolition 9/3, 131-145. 1988.


Slave Trade and Slave Routes of the East African Coast. In: Zimba, B.; et al.: Slave Routes and Oral Tradition in South eastern Africa, 13-38. Maputo 2005.


Sheriff, A.; et al.:


Transition from Slavery in Zanzibar and Mauritius. London 2013.

Shillington, K.:

History of Africa. S.: 249-254: The East African Slave Trade. Oxford 2005.

Sidi, A.:

L’esclavage aux Comores. Son fonctionnement de la période arabe en 1904. In: Maestri, E.: Esclavage et Abolition dans l’Océan Indien, 89-114.2002

Skinner, E.:

Menschenhandel. Sklaverei im 21. Jahrhundert. Bergisch Gladbach 2008.

Spaulding, J.:

Slavery, land tenure and social class in the northern Turkish Sudan. In: International Journal of African Historical Studies 15. 1982.

Speitkamp, W.:

Kleine Geschichte Afrikas. S.: 103-118: Sklaverei und Sklavenhandel. Stuttgart 2007.

Ssekamwa, J.:

A Sketch Map History of East Africa. S.: 76-83: The Slave and Ivory Trade. Cheltenham 1984.

Stanley, H.:

Slavery and the Slave Trade. In: Harpers New Monthly Magazine. 1893.

Stanziani, A.:

Sailors, Slaves, and Immigrants: Bondage in the Indian Ocean World, 1750-1914. New York 2014.

Steere, E.:

The East African Slave Trade. London 1871.

Stockreiter. E.E.:

British Perceptions of Concubinage and the Patriarchal Arab Household: The Reluctant Abolition of Slavery in Zanzibar, 1890s – 1900s. In: Slavery & Abolition 36/4, 721-737. 2015.

Storms, E.:

L’esclavage entre le Tanganyika et la côte est. In : La traite des esclaves en Afrique110-111. Brussels 1889.

Strobel, M.:

Slavery and Reproductive Labor in Mombasa. In: Women and Slavery in Africa, 111-129. Madison 1983.

Sullivan, C.:

Dhow Chasing in Zanzibar Waters and on the Eastern Coast of Africa. Narrative of Five Years Experience in the Suppression of the Slave Trade. London 1873.

Sunseri, T.:

Slave Ransoming in German East Africa, 1885-1922. In: International Journal of African Historical Studies 26/3, 481-511. 1993.


Swann, A.:

Fighting the Slave-Hunters in Central Africa. London 1910.

Talhami, G.:

The Zanj Rebellion Reconsidered. In: The International Journal of African Historical Studies 10/3, 443-461. 1977.


Suakin and Massawa under Egyptian Rule, 1865-1885. Washington 1979.

Teelock, V.:

Bitter Sugar: Sugar and Slavery in 19th Century Mauritius. Moka 1998.


Breaking the Wall of Silence: Slavery in Mauritian History. In: Radical History Review 91, 104-109. 2005.

Telfair, C.:

Some Account of the State of Slavery at Mauritius. Port-Louis 1830.

Temu, A.:

The Role of the Bombay Africans (Liberated Africans) on the Mombasa Coast 1874-1901. In: Hadith 3, 53-81. 1971.

Texugo, F.:

A Letter on the Slave Trade still carried on along the Eastern Coast of Africa. London 1839.

Thompson, J.:

The Slave Trade in East Africa. In: Anti-Slavery Reporter 2, 1-3. 1882.

Tindall, P.:

History of Central Africa. S.: 124-131: Slavers and Traders in Malawi, 1860 to 1890. London / New York 1968.

Tinker, H.:

A New System of Slavery: The Export of Indian Labour Overseas, 1830-1920. London 1974.

Toledano, E.:

The Imperial Eunuchs of Istanbul: From Africa to the Heartland of Islam. In: Middle Eastern Studies 20, 379-390. 1984.


Slavery and Abolition in Ottoman Middle East. Seattle 1998.


African Communities in Asia and the Mediterranean. Trenton 2012.

Tominaga, C.:

Indian Immigrants and the East African Slave Trade. In: Seri Ethnological Studies Osaka 43, 295-317. 1996.

Toru, M.; Philips, J.:

Slavery and Muslim Societies. Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa. London 2000.


The African Slave Trade from the Fifteenth to the Nineteenth Century. Paris 1979.

Unomah, A.:

East Africa: The Expansion of Commerce: Social Changes and the Slave Trade. In: Flint, J.: The Cambridge History of Africa, Vol. 5: From 1790-1870. S. 298-306. Cambridge 1976.

Van Lehman, D.; Eno, O.:

The Somali Bantu: Their History and Culture. Culture Profiles 16. Washington 2003.

Valette, J.:

Considérations sur les exportations d’esclaves Malgaches vers les Mascareignes au XVIIIe siècle. In: Colloque de Beyrouth 1966, 531-540. Paris 1970.

Van Reybrouck, D.:

Kongo: Eine Geschichte. S.: 45-63. Berlin 2012.

Vaughan, M.:

Creating the Creole Island: Slavery in Eighteenth Century Mauritius. Durham / London 2005.

Vernet, T.:

Le commerce des esclaves sur la côte swahilie, 1500-1750. In: Azania 38, 69-97. 2003.


Slave Trade and Slavery on the Swahili Coast, 1500-1750. In: Mirzai, B.; et al.: Slavery, Islam and Diaspora, 37-76. Trenton / Asmara 2009.

Vink, M.:

The World’s Oldest Trade: Dutch Slavery and Slave Trade in the Indian Ocean in the Seventeenth Century. In: Journal of World History 14/2, 131-177. 2003.

Waller, H.:

Heligoland for Zanzibar, or One Island full of Free Men for two full of Slaves. London 1893.


The Case of our Zanzibar Slaves, why not liberate them? London 1896.

Wanquet, C.:

La traite illégale à Maurice à l’époque anglaise, 1811-1835. In: Daget, S.: De la traite à esclavage, 451-465. Paris 1988.

Watson, J.:

Slavery and Indenture in Mauritius and Seychelles. In: Watson, J.: Asian and African Systems of Slavery. Berkeley 1980.

Weidner, F.:

Die Haussklaverei in Ostafrika. Jena 1915.

Westermann, D.:

Geschichte Afrikas: Staatenbildung südlich der Sahara. S.: 368-378. Köln 1952.

Westra, P.; Armstrong, J.:

Slave Trade with Madagascar. Cape Town 2006.

Whyte, C.:

The Global and Local Origins of Anti-Slavery in Abyssinia, 1880-1942. In: Slavery & Abolition 35/4, 652-669. 2014.

Wickins, P.:

An Economic History of Africa. From the Earliest Times to Partition. S.: 180-184: Eastern and Southern Africa; The Slave Trade. Oxford 1981.

Willis, J.:

Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa. 2 Bde. London 1985.

Wills, A.:

An Introduction to the History of Central Africa. S.: 73-81: The Slave Trade. Oxford 1964.

Wimmelbücker, L.:

Kilimanjaro: A Regional History, 1800-1920. Vol. 1; S.: 134-142; 170-173: Slave Trade. Münster / Hamburg / London 2002.

Wirz, A.:

Sklaverei und kapitalistisches Weltsystem. S.: 40-49: Der orientalische Sklavenhandel. Frankfurt/M. 1984.

Worden, N.:

Slavery in Dutch South Africa. Cambridge 1985.


Indian Ocean Slaves in Cape Town, 1695-1807. In: Journal of Southern African Studies 42/3, 389-408. 2016.

Wright, J.:

The Wadai-Benghazi Slave Route. In: Savage, E.: The Human Commodity. London 1992.


Central Africa, Northern: Slave Raiding. In: Shillington, K.: Encyclopedia of African History, Vol. 1: 225-226. New York 2005.

Wright, M.:

Strategies of Slaves and Women. Life-Stories from East and Central Africa. London / New York 1993.

Zimba, B.; Alpers, E.; Isaacman, A.:

Slave Routes and Oral Tradition in Southeastern Africa. Maputo 2005.

Zimmermann, M.:

The French Slave Trade at Mocambique, 1770-1794. Madison 1967.

Zwanenberg, R.:

Anti-Slavery, the Ideology of 19th Century Imperialism in East Africa. In: Hadith 5, 110-129. 1976.

363 | Gegen sexualisierte Gewalt
Cover Vergrößern